The recrudescence of silicone “science” made me wonder where some of the major players in the silicone litigation are today. Some of the plaintiffs’ expert witnesses were characters who gave the litigation “atmosphere.”
Marc Alan Lappé was an experimental pathologist, who testified frequently for plaintiffs in toxic exposure cases. He founded an organization, The Center for Ethics & Toxics (CETOS), to serve as platform for his advocacy activities. Lappé was a new-age scientist, and an author of popular books on toxic everything: Chemical Deception: The Toxic Threat to Health and the Environment, and Against the Grain: Biotechnology and the Corporate Takeover of Your Food. When the silicone-gel breast implant litigation went viral, or immunologic, Lappé was embraced by the silicone sisters and their lawyers as one of their leading immunology guys. Lappé, a revolutionary, obliged and produced another pop science classic: Marc Lappé, The Tao Of Immunology: A Revolutionary New Understanding Of Our Body’s Defenses (1997).
Lappé jumped in to the silicone litigation early. He supported autoimmune claims, as well as the dubious claim that polyurethane-covered breast implants caused or accelerated breast cancer. Livshits v. Natural Y Surgical Specialties, Inc., 1991 WL 261770 (S.D.N.Y. Nov. 27, 1991). In depositions and in trial testimony, Lappé was combative and evasive, but when he wanted to be clear, he could be clear enough:
“It’s my opinion that silicone directly or indirectly can precipitate an activated immune state in such women that can lead to an autoimmune condition.”
Lappé Dep. 44:19-22 (Aug. 21, 1995), in Roden v. Medical Engineering Corp., No. 94-02-103, in District Court of Wise County, Texas, 271st Judicial District.
Plaintiffs also offered Lappé as an ethicist, in what was an obvious attempt to turn personal injury cases into passion plays and to raise the emotional temperature of the court rooms. Plaintiffs were able to get away with such nonsense in some state court cases, but the federal judges generally would not abide expert witnesses on ethics. See, e.g., Switzer v. McGhan Medical Corp., CV 94-P-14229-S, Transcript at 96-98, N.D. Ala. (Jan. 4, 1996) (Pointer, J.) (noting that Lappé would not be permitted to testify that the defendant’s conduct was unethical or unconscionable). Ironically, Lappé would become ensnared by an article, the publication of which was surrounded in ethical controversy.
Although Lappé had some experience in experimental immunology, he had no background in silicone. Undaunted, he set about to publish a work of science fiction. Marc Lappé, “Silicone-reactive disorder: a new autoimmune disease caused by immunostimulation and superantigens,” 41 Medical Hypotheses 348 (1993). Lappé went on to find some researchers with whom he could join forces, and in 1993, he and his co-authors published an article based upon what was ostensibly bench research on silicone immunology. Alas, Lappé did not really know the other authors, who were pitching their immunological screening test to plaintiffs’ support groups and to plaintiffs’ lawyers. Lappé signed up as a co-author without knowing the authors’ marketing plan, and without ever having seen the underlying data and statistical analyses. Given his credentials as a bioethicist, the lapse was remarkable. Lappé learned only through his involvement as an expert witness that his coauthors had been warned by the Food and Drug Administration about unlawful marketing of their “test,” and that some of his co-authors were involved in litigation against Bristol-Myers Squibb. Although the article was clearly intended to support both the marketing of the test, the litigation that would have benefited his coauthors directly, as well as Lappé’s testimonial adventures, the article contained no conflict of interest disclosures. Laurence Wolf, Marc Lappé, Robert Peterson, and Edward Ezrailson, “Human immune response to polydimethylsiloxane (silicone): screening studies in a breast implant population,” 7 Faseb J. 1265 (1993).
Lappé was an advocate, but he was not stupid. The late Chuck Walsh took some of Lappé’s early depositions in the breast implant litigation, and pressed him on whether he had seen or had access to the underlying data. Lappé Dep. Roden at 94:4 -21 (Aug. 21, 1995). Lappé also acknowledged that he had been unaware that the data presented in the published paper was truncated from the data originally obtained in the study. Id. at 108:19 – 109:7. Lappé bristled, as well he should, at these challenges to his ethical bona fides. He apparently requested the underlying data on more than one occasion, but his colleagues would not share the data with him:
Question: I want to ask you, did you ever get the basic raw data?
Answer: That was asked and answered as recently as three weeks ago. And the same answer applies today: No. I had asked for it. It was not give[n] to me. I have asked for it again. It’s not been given to me.
Lappé Dep. at 172:9-14 (Mar. 21, 1996), in Wolf v. Surgitek, Inc., No. 92-60186, 113th Judicial District, District Court of Harris County, Texas.
In early 1998, before Judge Pointer’s neutral expert witnesses delivered their reports in the multi-district proceedings, I traveled to Gualala, California, to take Lappé’s deposition in Page v. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., No. JCCP-2754-03740, California Superior Court, County of San Diego (Jan. 19, 1998). I recall the little coastal town of Gualala well. The hotel, restaurant, and even the deposition room were infested with fruit flies, no doubt because pesticides were banned under Lappé’s influence. When I asked Lappé whether he had changed his views in any way, he gracefully backed away from his previous testimony:
“I believe that the current evidence, the weight of evidence suggests that the antibodies that are formed in women, perhaps in excess of their background levels for IGG antibody, may not have a specificity towards silicone itself as an antigen but may bind preferentially to silicone and therefore given nonspecific binding results such as those as the Emerald Labs detected in their plate bioassay. I think their evidence does not presently weigh in favor of considering silicone by itself as an antigen.”
Lappé Dep. Wolf at 100: 5-18. Later that year, 1998, Tim Pratt extracted further concessions from Lappé, in a Mississippi case. Lappé acknowledged that the MDL court’s neutral expert witnesses had done a “reasonably good job,” and that he agreed with them that there was not consistent evidence to support the claim that silicone caused autoimmune disease. Lappé Dep. at 26:1-9 (Dec. 17, 1998), in Brassell v. Medical Engineering Corp., Case No. 251-96-1074 CIV, Hinds County Circuit Court, Mississippi.
The litigation faded away, and so did Lappé. He died in 2005. Douglas Martin, “Marc Lappé, 62, Dies; Fought Against Chemical Perils,” N.Y. Times (May 21, 2005). Few other expert witnesses for silicone plaintiffs had the intellectual integrity to confess error. I hope he has found his missing data.